6 Verb types to help you to conjugate Finnish verbs

The verb typology helps you to conjugate the verbs. There are six different types of verbs, and you will identify them by infinitive forms (that's the form you'll find in a dictionary).

Verb type 1

-A/-Ä

This type ends with two vowels, and you get the stem by removing the last vowel, which is always a or ä. If there's consonant gradation, the infinitive and the 3rd person are always in strong grade, other persons in weak grade.

verb type 1 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
puhua puhun puhuu puhuin
lukea luen lukee luin
rakastaa rakastan rakastaa rakastin
tuntea tunnen tuntee tunsin
ymmärtää ymmärrän ymmärtää ymmärtäisin

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Verb type 2

-DA/-DÄ

You get the stem by removing the da/dä -ending. There's never consonant gradation in this type.

verb type 2 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
juo-da juo-n juo join
jäädä jään jää jäin
saada saan saa sain
viedä vien vie vein
voida voin voi voin

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Verb type 3

There are four different endings in this type. You get the stem by removing the ending. In the personal conjugation, you must add e before the personal ending. Consonant gradation is possible only in the verbs ending with -la/lä, then infinitive is in weak grade, other persons in strong grade.

-LA / LÄ

verb type 3 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
tulla tulen tulee tulin
ajatella ajattelen ajattelee ajattelin

-NA / NÄ

verb type 3 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
panna panen panee panin
mennä menen menee menin

-RA / RÄ

verb type 3 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
purra puren puree purin
surra suren suree surin

-(S)TA / (S)TÄ

verb type 3 conjugation
nousta nousen nousee nousin
juosta juoksen juoksee juoksin

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Verb type 4

-(V)TA/TÄ

(V means any vowel)

This type ends with any vowel + ta/tä. You get the stem by removing the ta/tä and adding an extra a/ä. If there's consonant gradation, the infinitive is in weak, and all the persons in strong grade.

verb type 4 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
avata avaan avaa avasin
erota eroan eroaa erosin
vastata vastaan vastaa vastasin

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Verb type 5

-ITA/ITÄ

verb type 5 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
tarvita tarvitsen tarvitsee tarvitsin
merkitä merkitsen merkitsee merkitsin
valita valitsen valitsee valitsin

You get the stem by removing the ta/tä and adding -tse. There's never a consonant gradation in this type.

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Verb type 6

-ETA/ETÄ

You get the stem by removing the ta/tä and adding -ne.

verb type 6 conjugation
1. infinitive 1. person sing. 3. person sing. imperfect
kylmetä kylmenen kylmenee kylmenin
paeta pakenen pakenee pakenin

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