Passive

There are two voices of a verb, passive and active. Active has the personal conjugation and 6 persons. Passive has only 1 personal form; passive is used when person is indefinite.

In Finnish, passive is used in general statemens. There's no subject in the passive sentence.

Suomessa puhutaan suomea.
They speak Finnish in Finland./Finnish is spoken in Finland.

Another common use for passive is in suggestions:

Mennäänkö?
Are we going? / Shall we go?
Pelataanko korttia?
Shall we pray cards?/ How about if we played cards?

It has 4 tempus and 4 modes.

examples of passive forms
puhutaan is spoken
puhuttiin was spoken
on puhuttu has been spoken
oli puhuttu had been spoken
puhuttaisiin would be spoken
puhuttakoon let be spoken
puhuttaneen might be spoken

How to form passive?

NB! Passive is always in weak grade!

Passive present tense

In verb types 2-6, you form the passive by adding -an/-än after the infinitive.

In verb type 1 you form the passive by adding -taan/tään after the stem of the 1. person singular:

NB! The last vowel a/ä becomes e!

Negative passive present tense

You can form the negative passive (present tense) by removing the 2 last letters (-an/än).

In verb types 2-6 the negative passive is similar to 1. infinitive.

Passive simple past tense

In verb types 2-6, you form the passive by adding -tiin after the infinitive stem (remove the last 2 letters from the infinitive).

In verb type 1 you form the passive by adding -ttiin after the stem of the 1.person singular:

NB! The last vowel a/ä becomes e!

Negative passive simple past tense

In verb types 2-6, you form the negative passive (simple past tense) by adding -tu/ty after the infinitive stem (remove the last 2 letters from the infinitive).

In verb type 1, you form the negative passive (simple past tense) by adding -ttu/tty after the stem of the 1.person singular.


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