Passive

There are two voices of a verb, passive and active. Active has the personal conjugation and 6 persons. Passive has only 1 personal form; passive is used when person is indefinite.

In Finnish, passive is used in general statemens. There's no subject in the passive sentence.

Suomessa puhutaan suomea.
They speak Finnish in Finland./Finnish is spoken in Finland.

Another common use for passive is in suggestions:

Mennäänkö?
Are we going? / Shall we go?
Pelataanko korttia?
Shall we pray cards?/ How about if we played cards?

It has 4 tempus and 4 modes.

examples of passive forms
puhutaan is spoken
puhuttiin was spoken
on puhuttu has been spoken
oli puhuttu had been spoken
puhuttaisiin would be spoken
puhuttakoon let be spoken
puhuttaneen might be spoken

How to form passive?

NB! Passive is always in weak grade!

Passive present tense

In verb types 2-6, you form the passive by adding -an/-än after the infinitive.

examples of passive forms
juoda -> juodaan
opiskella -> opiskellaan
olla -> ollaan

In verb type 1 you form the passive by adding -taan/tään after the stem of the 1. person singular:

examples of passive forms
nukkua -> nuku-n -> nukutaan
lukea -> lue-n -> luetaan
sanoa -> sano-n -> sanotaan

NB! The last vowel a becomes e!

antaa -> anna-n -> annetaan
rakastaa -> rakasta-n -> rakastetaan

Negative passive present tense

You can form the negative passive (present tense) by removing the 2 last letters (-an/än).

>juodaan -> ei juoda
opiskellaan -> ei opiskella
sanotaan -> ei sanota
nukutaan -> ei nukuta
annetaan -> ei anneta

In verb types 2-6 the negative passive is similar to 1. infinitive.

Passive simple past tense

In verb types 2-6, you form the passive by adding -tiin after the infinitive stem (remove the last 2 letters from the infinitive).

juoda -> juotiin
opiskella -> opiskeltiin
olla -> oltiin

In verb type 1 you form the passive by adding -ttiin after the stem of the 1.person singular:

>nukkua -> nuku-n -> nukuttiin
lukea -> lue-n -> luettiin
antaa -> anna-n -> annettiin

NB! The last vowel a/ä becomes e!

Antaa -> anna-n -> annetiin
Rakastaa -> rakasta-n -> rakastettiin

Negative passive simple past tense

In verb types 2-6, you form the negative passive (simple past tense) by adding -tu/ty after the infinitive stem (remove the last 2 letters from the infinitive).

juoda -> ei juotu
olla -> ei oltu
opiskella -> ei opiskeltu

In verb type 1, you form the negative passive (simple past tense) by adding -ttu/tty after the stem of the 1.person singular.

nukkua -> ei nukuttu
lukea -> ei luettu
antaa -> ei annettu

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