Past participle, "nut-participle"

Participles are verb forms that behave like adjectives. There's the present participle, "va-participle" and the past participle, "nut-participle".

Nut-participle is formed by adding the ending, -nut, after the stem. Often times it can be translated to English by the -ed verb form.

juopunut mies
a drunken man

Formation

Verb types 1 and 2

You get the stem by removing the infinitive ending (either -a or -da) and then you add the ending -nut. Remember the vowel harmony!

examples of participles
asua (to live) asunut
puhua (to talk) puhunut
käydä (to visit) käynyt
syödä (to eat) syönyt

Verb type 3

Again, remove the the infinitive ending (either -la, -na or -ra). With the verbs belonging to the type 3, the stem ends with consonant so the -n assimilates with the previous consonant:

examples of participles
olla (to be) ollut
kävellä (to walk) kävellyt
opiskella (to study) opiskellut
surra (to mourn) surrut

Verb types 4, 5 and 6

Remove the infinitive ending (-ta) to get the stem. With the verb types 4, 5 and 6 you add an extra -n

When to use?

As a modifier

Näyttelijätär on 50-vuotiaana hyvin säilynyt nainen.
The actress is as a 50 years old a well-preserved lady.

In several past tense forms

Knowing the nut-participle is important because it helps you to understand the perfect and pluskvamperfect tenses and the negative imperfect.

examples of participles
infinitive negative imperfect perfect pluskvamperfect
käydä en käynyt olen käynyt olin käynyt
asua en asunut olen asunut olin asunut

Examples:

Olen käynyt Ranskassa.
I have been to France.

Declinating participles

Since participles are actually adjectives, they are declinated alike.

participles in singular
nominative kasvanut
genitive kasvaneen
partitive kasvanutta
essive kasvaneena
translative kasvaneeksi
abessive kasvaneetta
inessive kasvaneessa
elative kasvaneesta
illative kasvaneeseen
adessive kasvaneella
ablative kasvaneelta
allative kasvaneelle

Plural

participles in plural
nominative kasvaneet
genetive kasvaneiden
partitive kasvaneita
essive kasvaneina
translative kasvaneiksi
abessiivi kasvaneitta
inessive kasvaneissa
elative kasvaneista
illative kasvaneihin
adessive kasvaneilla
ablative kasvaneilta
allative kasvaneille

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